 # Grade 3: Meaning of multiplication

Multiplication is one of Four fundamental operations in Arithmetic Math. The fundamental operations of Arithmetic are Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. Addition and Subtraction are the first steps in understanding the operation of Arithmetic. Grade 1 and 2 are basically focused on these concepts because to understand multiplication and division, having a thorough knowledge of addition and subtraction is crucial.

## What is Multiplication?

In simpler way, multiplication is adding a number to itself multiple times.

The second number in multiplication sum is the number to be added to itself and the first number shows “how many times” it is to be added. The answer to multiplication is called “Product”.

Multiplication can be explained in number of ways.

• Array: Arranging objects, pictures, or numbers in rows and columns is called an array. for example: when it is said, 2 x 4, it means there are 2 rows and there are 4 objects in each row. it can be shown like:
• Making Groups: Multiplication concept can also be explained by making equal groups of objects. when we say 2 x 4, it essentially means, there are 2 groups, and there are 4 objects in each group.
• Repeated addition: Multiplication is nothing but adding the same number over and over again. While understanding the concept , keeping in mind that multiplication is nothing new but adding the same number repeatedly helps to great extend. For example: 2 x 4 is nothing but 4 + 4.

we are adding number 4 twice here because first part of our sum is showing number 2.

Number line / Skip counting: multiplication can be done quickly if we know how to skip count or can be done with the help of a number line. The number line can be used in the initial stage because as the number gets bigger, it is a little time-consuming to draw the number line. But to understand and to get comfortable with the concept of multiplication, Number line helps to visualize the action of multiplication. 2 x 4 can be solved with the help of number line like;